Foam Analytics

Beta Analytic, Inc. Summary of Results
4985 SW 74 Court
Miami, Florida, 33155, USA
Tel: 305-667-5167, Fax: 305-663-0964
Biobased vs Petroleum-based organic content derived from radiocarbon dating analysis
www.biobasedtesting.com

Submitter: Mr. Benjamin Brown
Date Reported: March 1, 2008
Company: Natural Polymers, LLC

Laboratory Number: BETA-213266
Submitter Number: Natural-Thmer2250 Foam
Material: SOLID MATERIAL
ASTM Method (D6866-05): Method C
Delta 13C: -22.4 o/oo
Mean Biobased Result*: 20%
Apparent Biobased: Content*: 17 – 23 %

* Biobased percentages were derived by presuming all the carbon components in the analyzed material were derived from plants or animals either respiring atmospheric carbon dioxide within the last few years of 2003 or were fossil in origin. An absolute uncertainty of +/- 3% is estimated for variation in both the modern and fossil endpoints to derive the APPARENT BIOBASED CONTENT. Mean Biobased Estimates greater than 100% and less than 103% are assigned a value of 100% for simplification. The most conservative interpretation of these results is that the Mean Biobased Estimate and Apparent Biobased Content represent maximum values. See the explanation page provided with this report for greater detail.

CALCULATION OF BIOBASED CONTENT FROM RADIOCARBON MEASUREMENTS

Laboratory Number: BETA-213266
Natural Polymers, LLC Natural-Therm 2250
Submitter Number:

Material: SOLID MATERIAL

Mean Biobased Result:* 20%
Apparent Biobased Content:* 17 – 23 %

* Biobased percentages were derived by presuming all the carbon components in the analyzed material were derived from plants or animals either respiring atmospheric carbon dioxide within the last few years of 2003 or were fossil in origin. An absolute uncertainty of +/- 3% is estimated for variation in both the modern and fossil endpoints to derive the APPARENT BIOBASED CONTENT. Mean Biobased Estimates greater than 100% and less than 103% are assigned a value of 100% for simplification. The most conservative interpretation of these results is that the Mean Biobased Estimate and Apparent Biobased Content represent maximum values. See the explanation page provided with this report for greater detail.

Present Day Modern Reference: 107.5 +/- 2
0.01 +/- 0.01 pMC
Fossil Reference:
Method C
ASTM Method (D6866-04a):

delta 13C (13C/12C ratio): -22.4 o/oo

Beta Analytic Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory

4985 SW 74 Court, Miami, Florida, USA 33155 – Tel: 305-667-5167 – Fax: 305-663-0964 – www.

Beta Analytic, Inc. Explanation of Results
4985 SW 74 Court

Miami, Florida, 33155, USA Biobased vs Petroleum-based organic content derived
Tel: 305-667-5167, Fax: 305-663-0964
from radiocarbon dating analysis
www.biobasedtesting.com

The application of radiocarbon dating to derive a “biobased content” is built upon the same concepts as determining a radiocarbon age, but without use of the age equations. It is done by deriving a ratio of the amount of radiocarbon (14C) in an unknown sample to that of a modern reference standard. The ratio is reported as a percentage with the units “pMC” (percent modern carbon). If the material being analyzed is a mixture of present day radiocarbon and fossil carbon (containing no radiocarbon), then the pMC value obtained correlates directly to the amount of biobased material present in the sample.

The modern reference standard used in radiocarbon dating is a NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) standard with a known radiocarbon content equivalent approximately to the year AD 1950. AD 1950 was chosen since it represented a time prior to thermo-nuclear weapons testing which introduced large amounts of excess radiocarbon into the atmosphere with each explosion (termed “bomb carbon”). This was a logical point in time to use as a reference for archaeologists and geologists. For an archaeologist or geologist using radiocarbon dates, AD 1950 equals “zero years old”. It also represents 100 pMC.

“Bomb carbon” in the atmosphere reached almost twice normal levels in 1963 at the peak of testing and prior to the treaty halting the testing. Its distribution within the atmosphere has been approximated since its appearance, showing values which are greater than 100 pMC for plants and animals living since AD 1950. It’s gradually decreased over time with today’s value being near 107.5 pMC. This means that a fresh biobased material such as corn would give a radiocarbon signature near 107.5 pMC.

Combining fossil carbon with present day carbon into a material will result in a dilution of the present day pMC content. By presuming 107.5 pMC represents present day biobased materials and 0 pMC represents petroleum derivatives, the measured pMC value for that material will reflect the proportions of the two component types. A material derived 100% from present day soybeans would give a radiocarbon signature near 107.5 pMC. If that material was diluted with 50% petroleum derivatives, it would give a radiocarbon signature near 54 pMC.

A biobased content result is derived by assigning 100% equal to 107.5 pMC and 0% equal to 0 pMC. In this regard, a sample measuring 99 pMC will give an equivalent biobased content result of 93%. This value is referred to as the MEAN BIOBASED RESULT and assumes all the components within the analyzed material were either present day living or fossil in origin.

The accuracy of the MEAN BIOBASED RESULT can vary due to local variations in modern atmospheric radiocarbon content and uptake, the potential for the fossil component to have some amount of radiocarbon due to contamination (perhaps introduced during the manufacturing process), the possibility of materials which are several years old being used in the manufacturing process (having elevated bomb carbon contents) and the possibility of loss of a volatile fraction of one of the components during the manufacturing process. The combined uncertainty from the first three should be within only a few percent. However, they can be eliminated by measuring the raw biobased components and the raw fossil components prior to manufacturing followed by measuring the manufactured material itself. The loss of a component during manufacturing can be accurately assessed with knowledge of the manufacturing process. It is not significant if the end result needed is the total biobased component “present” in the manufactured product rather than the total biobased component “used” in the manufacturing of that product. Because of uncertainties in the MEAN BIOBASED RESULT, the most applicable result from radiocarbon dating analysis is a range (called the APPARENT BIOBASED CONTENT).

The results provided in this report involved materials provided without any source information. This situation is highly probable in a real life situation. The APPARENT BIOBASED CONTENT quoted in this report encompasses an absolute range of 6% (plus and minus 3% on either side of the MEAN BIOBASED RESULT) to account for variations in end-component radiocarbon signatures (a conservative approximation).It is presumed that all materials are present day or fossil in origin and that the desired result is the amount of biobased component “present” in the material, not the amount of biobased material “used” in the manufacturing process. The most conservative interpretation of the reported percentages is as maximum values.